The Yeniche (French spelling), or Jenische (German spelling) are a traditionally itinerant social group in German-speaking Europe and parts of France. The Jenische have been concentrated mostly around the Rhineland.
Although they are sometimes subsumed under the term gypsy, they are unrelated to the Romani people; rather, they were formed from the poor classes during the Early Modern period and the 19th century who were marginalized from society and forced to take up an itinerant lifestyle. Their Yeniche language or properly jargon (argot, cant) is High German enriched with special vocabulary, partially based on Rotwelsch. The adjective jenisch is first attested in the early 18th century in reference to a jargon of this kind. Use as a self-designation arose by the end of the 18th century, first recorded by Johann Ulrich Schöll, who published a treatise on itinerant groups in Swabia in 1793. Schöll was of the opinion that the group had formed comparatively recently, as a result of destitute parts of the population and former soldiers during the Thirty Years’ War.