An anthropologist on the moon: Anthropology Blog.: Family Ties: diversity of families in different cultures.

An anthropologist on the moon: Anthropology Blog.: Family Ties: diversity of families in different cultures..

Family Ties: diversity of families in different cultures.

“Polygamy (plural marriage) is given, at least in 90% of all cultures.”

“One of the most important facts about human domestic institutions is that there is no single pattern that is more” natural “than another”


Marvin Harris, an anthropologist.
In our culture, blood ties us together biological, and believe that marriage is the foundation of the family, which holds if there is mutual trust and good communication, and work to sustain and maintain the time together … with the ultimate goal of procreation.
Still …

I accept you as my wife …

The polygyny (a husband with many wives) is a custom known among some African tribes and Arab high ranking Mormons but also relaunched the old habit Hebrew plural marriage. In many places, this gives rise to conflicts and jealousies between wives, but in Botswana, women in the same husband are more as allies than as rivals, without the help of co-wives, housework never ends.
The polyandry is supported by very few people in the world. One is the ethnic Tibetan nyinbas , in northwestern Nepal, where there is a curious case of marriage of a woman with all the brothers of a family. If you have children, a second sister can join the marriage.Choosing the wife does big brother. 
 
Explains Maila Dai, a merchant of the people that Bargaau. “We believe that polyandry is like insurance for women. If a husband is not good or leaves his wife , there is always another brother “
There is also the polyandry among the tre-ba of Tibet, among the indigenous Bhotias / Butias of Kumaon and among the Tamils ​​of India.
 
An even more rare is when a society allows the couple take as many husbands as wives . The Zoe Amazonian tribe still practices these relationships and links that combines polygyny and polyandry. 

… and promise to be faithful in good times and in bad …

The infidelity , morally forbidden in our society (which does not mean that there is, and it even has a name: polyamory), in other cultures is well regarded. 

Among the Nayar , in Southeast India, women, apart from her legal husband or ‘Pater’, may have different lovers, who are the ones who generate their offspring. But the authority of all these offspring are educated in households where they are the brothers of the wife who has the authority. This is because the husbands rituals or Pater, statutory, are nambodri Brahmin caste, upper caste, who accept the Nayar sex but not the offspring is born of these

 
Among the Baris of Venezuela, if a pregnant woman has relations with another man, it is believed that part of his substance contributes to the formation of the new child. Although the husband is recognized as primordial father, the lovers also have paternal responsibilities. When giving birth, must name all lovers for the sake of the child, these parents because you are going to supply side of its resources, its fishing and hunting.
Among the Dogon of Mali, young wives lovers seek the approval of their mothers. 

The h uaorani , Amazon also not eroticize and sexualize l to need comfort and physical contact. For them to have sex is just two people (man and woman) performing intercourse in a hammock for reproductive purposes. As it is difficult for a woman to get pregnant at first intercourse, all must contribute to the creation of children, hence it is not strange that many men go through the same hammock of a woman. Repeat sex is considered necessary for a pregnant woman and the fetus to grow. 

There are at least 400 clubs exchange partner in the U.S. and 600 in Europe. However, it is not accepted practice in our society, not between the Inuit. Currently, the exchange is for pleasure, sex for sex, and there must be an agreement of the four parts. So if man secretly continued with a wife of another, what it does is kill his wife if she does not accept the exchange, as it is considered adultery.Then commits suicide, thus prevents the family of his wife killing ends.

Among kadar northern Nigeria, marriages are arranged by parents as children, until they reach maturity to go to live together. But during that time it is not uncommon that the girl becomes pregnant by another man, and this will not disturb anyone: The kadar not give any value to the premarital chastity . The offspring of these pregnancies becomes part of the promised and is well received as evidence of the fertility of the bride. 

marriages also the muria , northwestern India, are arranged by the parents, but before you are initiated into the practice Love by other boys and girls over a communal hut called “ghotul” If either one or the other have slept with all members of ghotul, sexual curiosity will have been satisfied, and the temptations adultery after marriage will be reduced.

… in sickness and in health …

Among the Rajputs of Northern India, marriage is prohibiting them t be talking to each other in the presence of older people, so they can only talk at night.And the husband can not show any affection or welfare by the woman, if she becomes ill, notify your in-laws.



Among the Fur of Sudan, husbands usually sleep apart from their wives, in their own houses, and eat in a dining room exclusively for men. It is not an isolated case, in many societies, husbands spend time in “special men’s houses” and sometimes even sleep in them. There they bring the food to the wives and children, who are forbidden to enter. Males Ashanti eat with their sisters, mothers, nieces and nephews, but never with their children and wives, who are cooking them. So, every evening there is a hustle bustle of children to their parents bring them food from his mother’s house. 

In the Trobriand Islands , the father does not share or substance or consanguinity with their children, and their children call him “the husband of my mother” The father did not get to meet his son until after six weeks, but he never acknowledged his paternity will . And is that semen trobiandeses deny any role in procreation: the woman becomes pregnant when a spirit child enters, climbing, into her vagina. The father maketh only. 

In our contemporary society, the idea prevails that filiation, kinship, derived from a biological rather than a social link. This belief collides with another type of procreation: artificial insemination, egg donation, loan or surrogacy, embryo freezing, IVF, adoption … What are the rights and obligations of legal and biological parents? Does the child must know the identity of the donors, who rented the uterus or provide sperm? But most people are not concerned about the question of the legitimacy of the child but who has the right to control their destiny.
In some populations of Africa , an infertile couple can agree a payment with a fertile woman for man postpartum relations are and become the legal father of the child. 
Another example is the population Yoruba of Nigeria , women couples practice assisted reproduction to conceive children a woman will have a legal father and another woman by birth mother. The child always know their biological parents without causing any conflicts.

… and love you and honor you all the days of my life. 

 

Among the Barotse of Zambia, as Max Gluckman, “if a man shows devotion to his wife, is supposed to be the victim of witchcraft”
Among the Fulbe African, Cameroon, many of their wives deny any attachment to the husband.
A group of women in Kenya, established the village of Umoja which means “unity” in Swahili. What began as a group of homeless women looking for a place to feel protected from abuse, became a village completely and exclusively directed for about 40 women and their children. “Women have to demand their rights first. Respect will come later. “ says the matriarch Rebecca Lolosoli.
 
In medieval Europe , marriage was a political and economic institution too important to be left solely in the hands of the two individuals and was based on something as irrational as love. It was an alliance of groups that went beyond the immediate family. Woman’s dowry was the highest income property, land or money that a man would receive throughout his life. But this does not mean that people do not fall in love. Adultery was the highest form of this feeling.

What God just joined,  


Among the Bathonga southern Mozambique, domestic life of his extended family, including obtaining wives, was under the control of men over the age of first generation

 
In traditional Chinese families , one older couple was administering the domestic labor and marriages.The women brought to the wives of the children were under the control of their mother, adiestrándola to be helpful and obedient.


… no man put asunder. 


The ! Kung San , Bushmen of the Kalahari, marry when the woman has between 8 and 12 years.Husbands are not allowed to have sex with them until they are sexually mature. The husband lives in the group of the Bride (uxorilocal) and works to serve her in-laws, until they pass 10 years or born the third child. Then it is considered that marriage is stable and can live in group wishing, which is usually the husband. Although there are rare long-term bonds, can be divorce, and in this case, the woman does not lose status and can be paired, but a divorced man, as a bachelor, is marginal. The aim of man! Kung san is married to have and to own hut and participate in group meetings. 

A widows in the traditional India l they are forced to lead a life of seclusion, without hope of a new marriage, subject to food taboos that starved … with the result that many of them prefer to the stake to widowhood.   

Amen.


The m osuo of China, or Nas, dispense with the marriage and maintain a complete sexual freedom, which makes the lack of father and children are reared in the house of his mother’s lineage. 

“I’m different from my friends. Only think of to find a man and marry, something I can not understand.” Ru Geshina, Mosuo women (Tibet)
Among the Dahomey , women could marry other women, paying the bride price, even built a house for his “wife” and took the necessary steps for a consort embarazase to it. Paying for several of these “wives”, an ambitious woman could gain control of household diligent and acquire wealth and power.
Among the k wakiutl , a man who wishes to acquire the privileges of a boss, you can marry a male heirof this. If the boss has no heirs can marry the right or left side of the head, or with one of his legs or arms.
“What is life and what is marriage and what is the family, they can not decide a few judges and politicians. (…) There is a judge who decides that a marriage is a union between a man and a woman.Not a judge who decides that life begins at conception. The laws are there to protect the reality but not to invent it. “ said a bishop named Munilla few months ago. A bishop against gay marriage. And reality.


Because the reality is that l to polygamy (plural marriage) is given, at least in 90% of all culturesof the world , and com is the variety of sexual behaviors that predominates. And q ue life in humans, of course, not only continues parameters biological, but on t odo social . 

Marvin Harris adds: “There is nothing to prove that such domestic institutions they are pathological, undesirable or contrary to “human nature” that the nuclear family ” 

” Q t is clear that no one knows the limits q ue should have domestic institutions hu weeks pa ra satisfy human nature. thing only is clear is that there is no single pattern that is more natural than another ” .

“It takes very little to create mankind” 
Levi-Strauss.

 

Sources: 
http://thomaslkelly.smugmug. com/REPORTAGE/Polyandry-Humla- Nepal/21095379_GJM5jc
Marvin Harris. “Introduction to Anthropology” 
Helen E. Fisher. “Anatomy of Love.” 
Nancy E. Levine. “The dynamics of polyandry: kinship, domesticity, and population on the Tibetan border”.
Stephen Beckerman. “ethnohistorical information about Bari (Motilones)”

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